Valve Diseases and Treatment

AORTIC VALVE DISEASES
The aortic valve is a half-moon-shaped valve consisting of 3 leaflets located between the left ventricle and the aorta. In adults, aortic valve disorders may occur for various reasons. These disorders can be in the form of aortic stenosis, insufficiency or stenosis + insufficiency. In some people, the aortic valve may be congenitally 2-leaf. Aortic stenosis is seen congenitally or later, due to acute rheumatic fever and other causes.

Aortic stenosis

Aortic stenosis is a rare disease with a rate of 5/10,000. It may not show symptoms until middle and advanced ages. The disease develops more easily on the congenital 2-leaf cover floor.

Symptoms

Fainting or feeling faint, shortness of breath while doing work, palpitations, chest pain, dizziness.

Surgical treatment

Surgical treatment of aortic stenosis is usually with valve replacement. In rare cases, the stenosis can be removed with the repair method. Valve replacement can be done with mechanical prosthesis, biological prosthesis or patches taken from cadavers. Today and in our country, mechanical prosthetic valves are used most frequently. The mortality rate due to aortic valve surgery is reported to be 3-5%.

Aortic insufficiency

It means the backflow of blood from the aorta to the left ventricle due to the inability of the aortic valve to close completely during relaxation of the heart. Its incidence is 5/10,000. It is common in men between the ages of 30-60.
Patients may experience shortness of breath, fainting, chest pain and mild heart failure. There is a strong blood flow sound in the heart.

Reasons

They are rheumatic fever, inflammatory disease of the heart, hypertension, Marfan syndrome (a chromosomal disease), aortic dissection, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter’s syndrome (connective tissue disease) and syphilis.

Symptoms

Palpitations, felt strong pulse, irregular pulse, fainting, getting tired quickly especially while doing work, shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain.

Surgical treatment

Surgical treatment in aortic regurgitation is in the form of valve replacement, as in aortic stenosis. If there is a ballooning or tearing in the ascending aorta with aortic regurgitation, then it should be replaced with an artificial vessel in the ascending aorta with the aortic valve.

MITRAL VALVE DISEASES

The mitral valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart and prevents blood from flowing backwards. The mitral valve has 4 components. Damage to one of these components of the mitral valve for any reason may cause valve stenosis or insufficiency. Mitral valve diseases are the most common rheumatic heart diseases in our country and are in the form of mitral stenosis. In western countries, it is generally seen in the elderly as mitral valve insufficiency.

What are the symptoms of mitral valve diseases?

Symptoms can usually occur while working or at rest. Complaints at rest are an indication of the progression of the disease. Since there may be deterioration in the muscle structure of the heart in such patients, it should be evaluated in detail with the examinations whether they will benefit from the surgery. Patients generally complain of shortness of breath with exertion, fatigue, palpitations and bloody sputum. In mitral regurgitation, rhythm disturbance due to excessive enlargement of the left atrium is frequently seen. In mitral stenosis, a clot may occur due to the slowing of the blood flow in the left atrium. As a result of dislocation of this clot, it can block the arm, leg or brain vessels in the body.

Surgical treatment in mitral valve diseases

Treatment of mitral valve disease may vary according to stenosis or insufficiency. Surgical treatment of mitral valve disease is in the form of repair or replacement of the valve. Repair surgery can be performed in patients whose shape of the valve is not very deformed. Metal valve or biological valves are placed in place of the mitral valve.