What is Congenital Vascular Anomalies / Vascular malformation?

Vascular malformations refer to a group of abnormal balls of arteries or veins that have been present since birth.
Vascular malformations may include high flow arteries and veins or slower flow veins and lymphatic vessels. Vascular malformations can be found in every part and organ of the body. Malformations may be in the form of a connecting ball between an artery and a vein, or a vascular bundle containing multiple vessels in any of these vessels. Therefore, arteriovenous malformation (AVM) formed by both the artery and the vein may be in the form of diffuse varicose venous malformation formed only by the vein, or cavernous angioma in the form of a thin capillary clump. It is often present at birth. Some disappear before the child reaches school age, while others may become more evident as they get older.

Reasons
Its causes are unknown, but it is often not hereditary.

Risk factors
Risk factors are unknown, but may be related to hormones. For example, the growth of malformations accelerates in puberty, pregnancy and use of birth control pills.

Symptoms:
Symptoms depend on the organ and type of malformation. Sometimes they do not cause any symptoms or complaints. The main complaints are:
Pain
Bleeding
The functions of the organ may be affected. For example, when it is in the brain, fainting and epileptic symptoms may occur.
cosmetic discomfort

How is it diagnosed?
The method of diagnosis depends on its location. The main diagnostic methods are:
Magnetic resonance (MR): It is the best diagnostic method, and the source of the malformation, its relations with other vessels and its dimensions can be determined.
Computed tomography: The size of the malformation can be determined from which vessel it originates from.
Ultrasound: It provides the most initial diagnosis of malformation.
Angiography: The connections of the malformation can be determined in the angiography taken by giving dye through a catheter inserted through the groin.

How is it treated?
Treatment depends on the type of malformation and the organ in which it is located. The general rules for treatment are very few, and each case is evaluated on its own and the most appropriate treatment option is determined. Malformations that do not cause complaints are only observed and generally do not require treatment.

The main treatments are:
Laser treatment: Especially birthmarks can be removed with laser applied to the skin.
Sclerotherapy: Malformation can be eliminated by injecting a drug into the malformations, especially those originating from the veins.
Embolization: Malformation can be eliminated by injecting a chemical substance or thin objects (coiled wire) into malformations originating from arteries or veins with an intravenous catheter.
Surgery: A malformation located in the adipose tissue or sometimes in the muscle, which has clear borders and causes complaints, can be surgically removed by ligating its vessels.